Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cynoscion: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Randall & Cervigón.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 60 m (Ref. 3702). Tropical; 12°N - 4°N
Western Atlantic: Colombia to northern Brazil. Also reported in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Silvery grey on back, pale below. Trunk with dotted oblique stripes along scale rows. Inside opercle black, visible externally. Spinous dorsal-fin margin dark. Mouth large, slightly oblique, lower jaw projecting. Upper jaw with a pair of large canine-like teeth at tip. Chin without barbels or pores. Snout with 2 marginal pores. Gas bladder with a pair of straight, horn-like anterior appendages. Soft dorsal fin unscaled except 2 or 3 rows of small scales along its base (Ref 51721).
Found over mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 3702). Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 3702).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26 - 27.6, mean 26.9 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00429 - 0.01690), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).