Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 100 - 1739 m (Ref. 58018). Deep-water; 33°N - 49°S, 98°W - 154°W
Eastern Atlantic: off Portugal south to Morocco including the Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands; off Cape Agulhas, South Africa (Ref. 3991). Western Atlantic: Southeastern Florida and Bermuda to Venezuela, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 37039). Elsewhere, South Atlantic, tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4463)
Usually associated with continental and island slopes (Ref. 4769). Mesopelagic (Ref. 58302). Occurs at 100-300 m by day, 200-500 m by night (Ref. 4463). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 4769). Photophore development complete by about 27 mm SL (Ref. 4769).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., J.C. Njock and M.M. de la Hoz, 1990. Gonostomatidae. p. 283-292. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4463)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.7 - 14.7, mean 9.2 °C (based on 768 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .