Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
() > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Bairdiella: From Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887) American naturalist and vertebrate zoologist leading authority in birds and mammals (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 16 - 40 m (Ref. 3702). Tropical; 23°N - 29°S, 97°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea southward to Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)
soft rays: 7 - 9. Colour greyish above, silvery below. Faint dark streaks on sides, oblique above, longitudinal below lateral line. Dorsal and caudal fins greyish with dark margin, anterior part of anal fin speckled. Mouth subterminal and oblique. Chin without barbel but with 5 pores. Preopercle serrated with few strong pines at angle. Second anal-fin spine very strong, as long as first soft ray. Gas bladder with 2 chambers, the anterior one yoke-shaped without appendages, the posterior one simple, carrot-shaped. Lapillus (small earstone) enlarged, more than half of sagitta (large earstone) (Ref 51721).
Found in coastal waters, over muddy and sandy bottoms. Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Important food fish.
Chao, L.N., 1978. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3702)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 28, mean 27.4 °C (based on 72 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00788 - 0.00962), b=3.08 (3.05 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 188,964).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .