Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 23°S - 27°S
Africa: restricted to the southern tributaries of the Limpopo, and the Incomati and Pongolo Rivers (Ref. 52193, 108777).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2801); max. published weight: 6.8 kg (Ref. 2801)
A cool-water species not found below 600m altitude; occurs in deep pools and flowing waters of permanent rivers and in dams (Ref. 52193). It feeds primarily on algae in winter months and aquatic insects in summer months, but also takes mussels, snails, crabs and small fish (Ref. 52193). It breeds during spring and summer, males maturing at a smaller size (170mm FL) than females (300mm FL); females grow larger than males (Ref. 7248, 52193).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 2001. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Cape Town (South Africa): Struik Publishers, 395 p. (Ref. 52193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .