Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 32°N - 34°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: southern Florida (USA), Bahamas and Yucatan, Mexico to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
soft rays: 9 - 10. 6 straight, even, and nearly equally wide bronze-yellow stripes on side (Ref. 26938). Snout short, mouth nearly horizontal and small, the maxilla usually not reaching a vertical at front edge of pupil; fins largely yellow (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits exposed rocky areas and coral reefs. Often near elkhorn and staghorn corals (Ref. 9710). Commonly found in schools. Juveniles are encountered in Thalassia beds (Ref. 9626). Adults are observed in coral reefs during the day but enters open waters at night to feed on mainly on plankton (Ref. 9626), but also on small crustaceans and mollusks. Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.3 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 634 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00759 - 0.01994), b=3.00 (2.87 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 48.8 [25.5, 102.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.56, 1.79] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.1 [18.1, 22.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.222 [0.114, 0.416] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.9 [7.8, 31.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 52.4 [17.9, 150.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.04 [0.61, 1.68] mg/100g (wet weight);