Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 54 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 38°N - 27°S, 99°W - 35°W (Ref. 189)
Western Atlantic: New York south to Miami (rare on the Gulf coast of Florida), Bermuda, Antilles, Trinidad and south to Brazil; also Venezuela to Panama, Yucatan and to northern Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 21 - 23. Snout long and pointed, only slightly less than eye diameter; maxilla long, tip pointed, reaching almost to gill opening; gill cover canals of panamensis-type; pseudobranch longer than eye diameter, with 30 or more filaments, extending onto inner face of operculum. Pectoral fin with first ray not filamentous. Silver stripe along flank about equal to eye diameter, with dark line above it (Ref. 189). Melanophores evenly distributed, usually not forming a middorsal stripe. Iridescent golden spot on top of head (Ref. 7251).
A schooling species occurring in coastal waters. Feeds on plankton.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 24.9 °C (based on 414 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00309 - 0.00776), b=3.13 (3.00 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 83.4 [39.7, 204.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.47, 2.06] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [15.7, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.27 [0.13, 0.57] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.2 [6.8, 43.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 60.6 [16.0, 222.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.11 [0.67, 1.83] mg/100g (wet weight);