Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 115 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 25°S
Pacific Ocean: Palau, Pohnpei and Kosrae in Micronesia, Marshall, Gilbert, Fiji, Cook and Society Islands; strays to Hawaii. Recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48391)
Inhabits steep outer reef slopes, typically in small tracks of rubble between areas of rich coral growth (Ref. 33482). Benthopelagic at 20-90 m (Ref. 58302). Cryptic. Herbivorous (Ref. 33482). Feeds readily in aquaria. Forms harems of 3-7 individuals. Rarely exported through the aquarium trade (Ref. 48391).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.3 - 28.9, mean 26.7 °C (based on 30 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03090 (0.01359 - 0.07026), b=2.89 (2.70 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.31 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).