Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 1000 - 3200 m (Ref. 4460). Deep-water; 53°N - 49°S, 32°W - 154°W
Eastern Atlantic: scattered records from 53°N south to Azores, then from Morocco southward to Namibia. Eastern Pacific: off Hawaii. Indo-West Pacific: including Australia (Ref. 7300) and New Zealand (Ref. 5755). Elsewhere, Indian Ocean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4460)
Bathypelagic to benthopelagic (Ref. 4460). Mesopelagic at 1000-1600 m (Ref. 58302). Bottom trawl captures between 1,000-1,600 m and mid-water captures between 1,600-3,200 m (Ref. 4460).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Markle, D.F. and J.-C. Quéro, 1984. Alepocephalidae (including Bathylaconidae, Bathyprionidae). p. 228-253. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4736)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 2.2 - 4.9, mean 3 °C (based on 2122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00159 - 0.00720), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).