Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 28°N - 12°N, 33°E - 68°E (Ref. 114953)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to Persian and Gulf of Oman. Nominal records east of Oman need to be confirmed.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 83 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 8630)
A benthic species often found in very shallow water near the coast and offshore on the continental shelf (Ref. 9909, Ref.114953). Feed on small mollusks and bony fishes (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Produces up to 10 pups a litter, mainly from May to October (in the Red Sea region) (Ref. 114953). Size at least 171 cm TL. Males matures at ca. 83 cm TL, birth size at ca. 29 cm TL (Ref.114953). Utilized where it occurs but information lacking (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 27.9 °C (based on 1002 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00138 - 0.01045), b=3.05 (2.82 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).