The 3 subspecies were upraised at species rank, as provisionally accepted names, , until more works are conducted on P. copei susbepcies to fix their status.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 200 - 1976 m (Ref. 58426). Deep-water; 67°N - 50°S, 76°W - 20°E
North Atlantic: Azores and the northwest Atlantic. South Atlantic: off Cape Point, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41039)
Epibenthic; feeds on comb jellies and cnidaria (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Stein, D.L., 1986. Liparididae. p. 492-494. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 6632)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 0.8 - 10, mean 4 °C (based on 112 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00236 - 0.01167), b=3.15 (2.95 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).