Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Zeiformes
(Dories) > Zeniontidae
Etymology: Zenion: Particle zen, derived from zao = to give life .
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 330 - 700 m (Ref. 4256). Deep-water
Western Indian Ocean: Natal (South Africa), Delagoa Bay (Mozambique), and Kenya. Southwest Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4256)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Zeniontidae. p. 441. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4256)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.3 - 12.2, mean 8.5 °C (based on 90 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5703 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00481 - 0.03145), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .