Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 40 m (Ref. 9774). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: east Indian Ocean, throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago to the South China Sea (Ref. 9774); recorded from the Philippines and Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9774)
soft rays: 56 - 59. Body pale brownish, with small ocelli at junction between curved and straight portions of lateral line and another one near middle of straight section. Upper profile of head without a distinct notch or with slight notch in front of upper eye. Origin of dorsal fin slightly in front of anterior margin of upper and just above posterior nostril on blind side. Pectoral fin on ocular side with 12-13 soft rays (Ref 9774).
Inhabits shallow waters, on mud and sand bottoms of continental shelves (Ref. 9774). Feeds on small benthic animals (Ref. 9774). Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 9774).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. and P.J. Kailola, 1984. Trawled fishes of southern Indonesia and northwestern Australia. Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Australia, Directorate General of Fishes, Indonesia, and German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Federal Republic of Germany. 407 p. (Ref. 5978)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.1 - 28.8, mean 28 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00347 - 0.01582), b=3.17 (3.00 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100).