Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 450 - 4540 m (Ref. 96339), usually 1750 - 2200 m (Ref. 4460). Deep-water; 40°N - 40°S, 69°W - 93°E (Ref. 57320)
Circumglobal in warmer waters. Eastern Atlantic: scattered records from southwest of Ireland to the Azores (Ref. 4736); between 29°23'N to 21°35'S. Eastern Pacific: California Current region (Ref. 35724). Possibly occurring in the Western Central Pacific (Ref. 38717).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found in deeper waters (Ref. 35724). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae (Ref. 35724).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Markle, D.F. and J.-C. Quéro, 1984. Alepocephalidae (including Bathylaconidae, Bathyprionidae). p. 228-253. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4736)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.5 - 3.5, mean 2.8 °C (based on 464 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00162 - 0.00740), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .