Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: east coast of India, Bangladesh, Burma southward to about Singapore and Borneo around Brunei to Australia (Ref. 7050). Reported from Nepal (Ref. 9496).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.7, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833); common length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4833)
Found in shallow coastal waters, estuaries and rivers (Ref. 9772).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sasaki, K., 2001. Sciaenidae. Croakers (drums). p.3117-3174. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. pp. 2791-3380. (Ref. 9772)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1272 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00445 - 0.01179), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K>1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).