Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Gerreidae
Etymology: Eucinostomus: Greek, eu = good + Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Baird & Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 12 m (Ref. 5227), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 41°N - 30°S, 120°W - 34°W
Eastern Pacific: Anaheim Bay in southern California, USA southward to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands. Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA and Bermuda through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 7251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 102462); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3722); max. published weight: 119.66 g (Ref. 102462)
Found over soft bottoms of bays and shallow inshore areas, often along sand beaches (Ref. 2850). Enters freshwater (Ref. 7251). Juveniles are encountered in lagoons of mangroves. Omnivorous (Ref. 9303). Marketed fresh but not highly esteemed; processed into fish meal and used as live bait in the snapper fishery (Ref. 3722).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.6 - 28.3, mean 27 °C (based on 1053 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00834 - 0.01198), b=3.07 (3.03 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 65 [27, 155] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.44 [0.63, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.5, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.458 [0.184, 1.233] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.9 [6.1, 37.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53.1 [10.0, 253.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [0.8, 2.6] mg/100g (wet weight);