Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 20 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: India east to Sagami Bay, Japan and China. A new record was reported from southern Indonesia (Ref. 5978).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Occurs on rocky cliffs in deep water (Ref. 9710). Also inhabits muddy substrates in protected bays where wave action has no influence (Ref. 48636). Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bi-directional sex change has been confirmed for this species (Ref. 103751). Sexual pattern seem to be intermediate between simultaneous and sequential hermaphroditism: individuals, at least under conditions of captivity, have the capacity to change sex in either direction, from functional male to functional female, or vice versa (Ref. 31569).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.4 - 29.3, mean 28.7 °C (based on 1745 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00652 - 0.02790), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).