Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 36739); depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 91172), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 9047). Tropical; 32°N - 18°S, 114°W - 79°W
Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Puerto Pizarro, Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96592); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9047)
Common in coastal waters less than 20 m depth and enters coastal lagoons and fresh water (Ref. 9047). Feeds on crustaceans, small fishes, polychaetes, and occasionally detritus (Ref. 9047). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9047). Benthic species that inhabits coastal waters less than 20m deep. May enter estuaries and freshwater (Ref. 55763).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chirichigno, N., 1980. Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru. IMARPE Informe (44). Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao, Peru. (Ref. 12)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20.8 - 28.5, mean 24.7 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00992 - 0.01752), b=3.10 (3.04 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (k >0.30).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).