Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Exocoetus: Greek, exos = outside + Greek, koite = hole (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 20 m. Subtropical; 60°N - 40°S
South Pacific: between 10°S and 32°S, from Australia to Ecuador (Ref. 5530) and Peru. Eastern Atlantic: South of Azores and Madeira to Angola, individual stragglers off Portugal and in the Mediterranean (Ref. 6523). Western Atlantic: off New Jersey and Florida to the northern Gulf of Mexico and Brazil (Ref. 7251). Uncommon in the Antilles (Ref. 51183). Conspecificity of the Atlantic and Pacific populations needs confirmation (Ref. 27313).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs in surface waters, both near and far from the coast (Ref. 5217). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for considerable distances above the surface.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V., 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364. (Ref. 27313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.7 - 29.1, mean 27.4 °C (based on 3705 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .