Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Melanostomiinae
Etymology: Echiostoma: Greek, echieys, eos = a little viper + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 30 - 4200 m (Ref. 58302), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 48°N - 40°S
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to South Africa except the Gulf of Guinea. Western Atlantic: USA south to Argentina, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Also Indian and Pacific oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4468)
Meso- to abyssopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gibbs, R.H. and M.A. Barnett, 1990. Melanostomiidae. p. 308-337. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4468)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.7 - 8.5, mean 4.3 °C (based on 2795 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.72 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .