Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 26999). Subtropical; 52°N - 45°S, 98°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: English Channel to Angola, including the Mediterranean, Madeira, and the Azores. Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts, USA and the Gulf of Mexico to Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6544); common length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 4699)
Found on sand, mud or over rocks in sandy areas, exploring the bottom with the free part of the pectoral fins (Ref. 6544). Feeds primarily on benthic crustaceans, especially crabs, clams and small fishes. Neither anterolateral glandural groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N. and L.J. Dempster, 1990. Dactylopteridae. p. 690-691. In J. C. Quero, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post, and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 10782)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 27.8, mean 23.9 °C (based on 1072 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00739 - 0.01292), b=2.98 (2.90 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .