Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 183 m (Ref. 26268), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 26268). Subtropical; 45°N - 15°N, 94°W - 65°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: New York south through the Florida Keys (USA), through the northern Gulf of Mexico to the Campeche Peninsula, Mexico, the Bahamas, and Cuba.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.1, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52683)
soft rays: 69 - 72. Eyed side dark brown, sometimes with narrow bars; large blackish patch on opercle.
Very abundant in shallow coastal waters and estuaries. Found on soft muddy bottoms. Feeds mainly on small benthic invertebrates, principally small crabs, polychaetes, copepods, amphipods and ostracods.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.7 - 27.9, mean 24.4 °C (based on 406 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00352 - 0.00541), b=3.19 (3.13 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=5).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).