Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335); diomedeanus: Named for the Greek hero in the Trojan Was, Diomedes. More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 6 - 263 m (Ref. 5951), usually 21 - 80 m (Ref. 26268). Subtropical; 36°N - 40°S, 98°W - 35°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, inner continental shelf of South America to about Isla de Flores, Uruguay.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35237); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3716)
Does not usually occur in shallow coastal or estuarine waters (Ref. 26268). Found on muddy bottoms. Feeds mainly on various benthic invertebrates particularly crabs and polychaete worms (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.7 - 27.5, mean 24.7 °C (based on 270 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00565 - 0.02332), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.5 [24.8, 124.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.03 [0.53, 1.81] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.3, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.147 [0.068, 0.300] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.6 [6.6, 34.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.6 [6.1, 131.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.952 [0.558, 1.537] mg/100g (wet weight);