Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate; 37°N - 17°N, 107°E - 137°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan and southwest Korea to Vietnam, including Taiwan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 44.5, range 39 - 56 cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6933); 62.0 cm TL (female)
Dwells near shore in sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Caught throughout the year in coastal waters of southern China. Feeds on small benthic animals. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males mature at 38-40 cm TL, females at 39-44 cm TL; born at ca. 16 cm TL. Produces litters of 2-9 pups (Ref. 114953). Used as `kamaboko' material (Ref. 637).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Off southern China, the gestation period is about one year and parturition takes place in June or July.
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00194 - 0.00492), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100).