Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Gasterochismatinae
Etymology: Gasterochisma: Greek, gaster = stomach + Greek, chiasma = marked with the sign of "X" (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 200 - m (Ref. 9563), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 8°C - 15°C (Ref. 168); 19°S - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 168)
Circumglobal in southern temperate waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 164 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 168)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 17 - 18;
soft rays: 11 - 13;
Vertebrae: 44. Pelvic fins enormous in juveniles, longer than head length. Pelvic fins fitting into a deep ventral groove at all sizes. Interpelvic process tiny and bifid. No anterior corselet. Swim bladder present with two anterior projections that extend into the back of the skull. The morphological adaptations required for maintaining high brain and retinal temperatures are discussed in Ref. 11221.
Occurs in deep oceanic waters (Ref. 9563), most abundant in waters of 8° to 10°C. Stomach contents of the specimen from north of the Hawaiian Archipelago include onychoteuthids, ommastrephid squid, vertebrae and fin rays from an unidentified fish, bird feathers and parasitic nematodes (Ref. 11006). Taken as longline by-catch by Japanese fishing for Thunnus maccoyii.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.2 - 15.9, mean 11.7 °C (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.7 [18.7, 59.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.49 [0.95, 2.55] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.8 [20.7, 24.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.446 [0.292, 0.714] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.7 [19.6, 60.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13 [5, 37] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.537 [0.383, 0.796] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.