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Family:  Arhynchobatidae Softnose skates  
Max. length (Lmax):  cm TL  
L infinity (Linf):  = cm  
K: 
/year
Ø' =
Median Ø' value with related Linf. and K. 
Growth & mortality data 

to:  years Estimated from Linf and K.  
Natural mortality (M): 
s.e.

/year
Estimated from Linf., K and annual mean temp. = °C 

Life span (approx.):  years Estimated from Linf., K and to. Max. age & size data  
Generation time:  years Estimated from Lopt, Linf., K and to.  
Age at first maturity (tm):  years Estimated from Lm, Linf., K and to.  
L maturity (Lm): 
s.e.

cm
Estimated from Linf. 

L max. yield (Lopt): 
s.e.

cm


Lengthweight: 
cm
=>
(wet weight)
W = * L ^ 
Lengthweight data 

Nitrogen & protein: 


Reproductive guild:  nonguarders: open water/substratum egg scatterers Reproduction  
Fecundity:  [ no value (min.)no value (max.) ] Estimated as geometric mean. Fecundity  
Relative Yield per Recruit (Y'/R): 
Estimate Y'/R from M/K, Lc/Linf and E.
Lc= cm E= /year Emsy /year Eopt /year Fmsy /year Fopt /year 

Exploitation: 
Z= F= E= 
Estimate Z, F, E from Lc, Lmean, Linf, K, M
Lc = cm Lmean = cm 

Resilience / productivity: 
Vulnerable to extinction if decline in biomass or numbers exceeds threshold over the longer of 10 years or 3 generations. 

Intrinsic rate of increase (rm):  /year 
Lr = cm
Estimated from Fmsy at Lc = length of recruitment (Lr). 

Food consumption (Q/B):  times the body weight per year 
Enter Winf, temperature, aspect ratio (A), and food type to estimate Q/B Winf = g Temp. = °C


Estimate growth  
Note: The estimates are derived from default values taken from FishBase and will thus not be appropriate for every population. You can change these values and recalculate the life history parameters. 
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Species summary 