|Main Ref.||Compagno, L.J.V., D.A. Ebert and M.J. Smale, 1989|
|Appearance refers to|
|Bones in OsteoBase|
|Body shape lateral||other|
|Dorsal head profile|
|Type of eyes|
|Type of mouth/snout|
|Position of mouth|
|Type of scales||placoid scales|
Diagnosis: A heavily armored stingray lacking a venomous barb; young with large, flat denticles on upper surface, and large juveniles and adults with additional sharp conical thorns and small, pointed denticles (Ref. 5578).
Description: Very large stingray with an extremely thick, oval disc, with broadly rounded outer corners (Ref. 5578, 81259). Snout broadly rounded (Ref. 5578). Dorsal surface very rough, its central area covered with flattened, heart-shaped, dermal denticles, and a very large number of conical, pointed, thorny tubercles scattered over the entire disc (Ref. 81259). Tail slender, about as long as body, very spiny, but sting always lacking; ventral tail fold reduced or absent (Ref. 5578, 81259).
Colouration: Light grey or whitish dorsally, white ventrally; tail whip blackish (Ref. 5578, 81259).
|Ease of Identification|
|Lateral Lines||Interrupted: No|
|Scales on lateral line|
|Pored lateral line scales|
|Scales in lateral series|
|Scale rows above lateral line|
|Scale rows below lateral line|
|Scales around caudal peduncle|
|Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)|
|on lower limb|
|on upper limb|