Morphology Data of Parotocinclus robustus
Identification keys
Main Ref. Lehmann, A.P. and R.E. Reis, 2012
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors
Remarks Males with the characteristic conical urogenital papilla, positioned just behind the anal opening; also adult males with a low fleshy flap along the dorsal margin of the first thickened pelvic-fin ray, that is absent in females. The flap is slightly deeper basally and progressively narrows distally. Flap is absent in juvenile males and females.

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral elongated
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

Distinguished from all species of Parotocinclus, except P. prata, by its abdomen

completely devoid of dermal plates between the pectoral girdle and the anus. Differs from P. prata by having the ventral surface of the head behind the lower lip smooth, without rugosities in adults (vs. ventral surface of the head behind the lower lip highly rugose in adult specimens), and by having the postrostral plate 4 contacting the infraorbitals 3 and 4 (vs. postrostral plate 4 not contacting the infraorbital series). Can be further diagnosed from most congeners, except P. arandai, P. bahiensis, P. prata, and P. spilurus, by having the rostral plate not visible ventrally on the snout tip (vs. rostral plate visible ventrally on the snout tip); and from most congeners, except P. spilurus, P. cearensis, P. prata, P. jumbo, P. spilosoma, and P. cesarpintoi, by having the pectoral girdle covered by skin medially and exposed and supporting odontodes only laterally (vs. pectoral girdle exposed and supporting odontodes both medially and laterally) (Ref. 91034).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Parotocinclus robustus

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total 1 - 1
Soft-rays total 7 - 7
Adipose fin present

Caudal fin

Attributes forked

Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total 6 - 6

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Spines     1
Soft-rays   6 - 6
Pelvics Attributes  
Position    behind origin of D1
Soft-rays   6 - 6
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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