Morphology Data of Pareiorhaphis scutula
Identification keys
Main Ref. Pereira, E.H.L., F. Vieira and R.E. Reis, 2010
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors
Remarks Adult males with cheeks (postrostral and cheek plates) covered with hypertrophied odontodes; large soft fleshy lobes extending along the entire lateral margins of head (this soft fleshy area ornamented with short hypertrophied odontodes, ca. perpendicular to the body axis); unbranched pectoral-fin ray very thick from the base to approximately three-fourths of its length, with distal portion soft and with somewhat short hypertrophied odontodes on outer and ventral surfaces; fully developed males have well-developed flashy flap along the entire length of the dorsal margin of the pectoral-fin spine; unbranched pelvic-fin ray with developed dermal flap on dorsal surface, extending to ray tip and distinctly higher near fin base.

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral elongated
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

This species is distinguished from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: abdomen entirely covered with small platelets imbedded in skin and irregularly scattered from pectoral girdle to pelvic-fin insertions (vs. abdomen totally naked or with 1-4 small platelets on each side just posterior to gill opening in P. parmula and P. nasuta ); it is distinguished further from P. parmula by having 51-71 premaxillary teeth (vs. 31-48), 24-28 lateral plates in the median series (vs. 28-31), longer snout length (62.1-70.0 vs. 53.8-63.0% HL); from P. nasuta by having a shorter snout length 62.1-70.0 (vs. 71.1-75.6% HL) and a larger orbital diameter 11.9-14.8 (vs. 8.6-11.3% HL) (Ref. 84022).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Pareiorhaphis scutula

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total
Adipose fin

Caudal fin


Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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