Morphology Data of Pareiorhaphis ruschii
Identification keys
Main Ref. Pereira, E.H.L., A.,P. Lehmann and R.E. Reis, 2012
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors
Remarks Mature males with a skin fold on the dorsal surface of the unbranched pelvic-fin ray, a thickened pectoral-fin spine, fleshy lobes on the lateral margins of head, and hypertrophied odontodes emerging from fleshy lobes and on the pectoral-fin rays. Females with an enlarged, swollen urogenital opening (vs. small and pointed urogenital papilla in males) (Ref. 91743).

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral elongated
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

This species is distinguished from its congeners: except P. azygolechis, in having the lower lip margin densely fringed (vs. smooth or just slightly fringed); except with P. garbei and P. azygolechis in having a series of 6-10 (usually 7-9) small median, preadipose azygous plates, forming a low postdorsal ridge between the dorsal and the adipose fins (vs. none to 5 preadipose plates); from all remaining species except P. calmoni, P. bahianus, P. nudulus, P. hypselurus, and P. stomias by the pectoral-fin spine very long and straight, reaching the distal third of the pelvic fin when adpressed in adult males (vs. spine short and curved and maximally reaching half of the pelvic-fin length); differs from most species, except P. eurycephalus, P. hypselurus, P. stomias, and P. stephanus by having the hypural

plate asymmetrical with the lower lobe longer than the upper (vs. hypural plate approximately symmetrical) (Ref. 91743).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Pareiorhaphis ruschii

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total
Adipose fin

Caudal fin


Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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