Morphology Data of Pareiorhaphis proskynita
Identification keys
Main Ref. Pereira, E.H.L. and M.R. Britto, 2012
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors
Remarks Males possess hypertrophied odontodes and well-developed soft fleshy lobes along the lateral portion of head; unbranched pectoral-fin ray slightly thickened from base to approximately three-fourths of its length, with distal portion soft and with short hypertrophied odontodes on outer and ventral surfaces; and unbranched pelvic-fin ray with developed dermal flap on dorsal surface, extending to ray tip, is distinctly higher close to fin base in comparison to adult females and juveniles.

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

Distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern consisting of large and conspicuous dark brown blotches irregularly scattered over a yellowish tan background on head, along the dorsal surface of body and flanks, and shallow depression at posterior unpaired plates covering the area otherwise occupied by the adipose fin. Differs from all congeners except Pareiorhaphis nudulus, P. eurycephalus, and P. vestigipinnis by the usual absence of the adipose fin; and from P. nudulus, P. eurycephalus, and P. vestigipinnis by having a shorter pectoral-fin spine 13.9-18.4% SL (vs. 19.3-24.2, 20.0-24.7, and 18.2-21.4% SL, respectively) (Ref. 91754).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Pareiorhaphis proskynita

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total 8 - 8
Adipose fin absent

Caudal fin

Attributes forked

Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total 6 - 6

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Position    abdominal  beneath origin of D1
Soft-rays   6 - 6
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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