Morphology Data of Pareiorhaphis mucurina
Identification keys
Main Ref. Pereira, E.H.L., T.C. Pessali and R.E. Reis, 2018
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors
Remarks Males have fleshy lobes that extend along the lateral margin of the head, with needle-like emerging hypertrophied odontodes (vs. both absent in females); adult males have short hypertrophied odontodes on the opercle and lateral process of the cleithrum, pectoral-fin spine very broad, bearing straight, short hypertrophied odontodes on entire outer surface, and a skin fold on the dorsal surface of the unbranched pelvic-fin ray that extends to the ray tip (are absent in females); male with small and pointed urogenital papillae behind the anal opening (vs. none in female) (Ref. 119415).

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral
Cross section angular
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

This species is distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: lower lip with a distinct narrow area completely lacking of papillae along and just posterior to each emergent tooth series of the dentary (vs. area posterior to tooth series of the dentary covered by papillae) and by having a short maxillary barbel, mostly adnate to lower lip by distinctly enlarged skin flap forming a continuous connection from the base to almost the end of the maxillary barbel (vs. small flap of skin connecting the maxillary barbel); further distinguished by the papillae in upper lip coalesced to form 3 or 4 transverse series of elongate skin folds anterior to the premaxillary tooth series (vs. papillae rounded, not fused to form skin folds); differs from all its congeners, except P. garapia, P. garbei, P. nasuta, P. proskynita, P. splendens, P. vestigipinnis, P. vetula by having a smaller eye diameter 8.5-11.3% (vs. 11.7-18.8% HL) and it differs from these seven species by having the soft fleshy lobe on the lateral margin of head progressively wider posteriorly in adult males (vs. soft fleshy lobe not widening posteriorly along the lateral margin of the head); differs from P. garapia, P. vestigipinnis, P. vetula by having a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet (vs. dorsal-fin spinelet absent); differs from P. garbei by having bifid teeth, with a small lateral cusp in both the dentary and the premaxilla (vs. teeth simple, without lateral cusp in both dentary and premaxilla); differs from P. proskynita, P. vestigipinnis in having an adipose fin (vs. adipose fin absent); differs from P. splendens by the long first unbranched pelvic-fin ray, approximately equal in size or longer than the pectoral-fin spine (vs. first unbranched pelvic-fin ray short, always shorter than the pectoral-fin spine); differs from P. nasuta by having the lateral tooth cusp longer, almost reaching or reaching to middle of medial cusp (vs. lateral cusp minute, never reaching to middle of medial cusp) (Ref. 119415).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Pareiorhaphis mucurina

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total
Adipose fin

Caudal fin


Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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