Morphology Data of Pareiorhaphis lophia
Identification keys
Main Ref. Pereira, E.H.L. and A.M. Zanata, 2014
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral fusiform / normal
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales bony plates or armour

This species can be distinguished from all congeners by having 2 unique characters: skin fold just posterior to each emergent tooth series of dentary formed by a single enlarged, flattened papilla; and the midline of lower lip immediately behind the dentaries with small patch of distinct papillae arranged in a short median bump (vs. papillae not projected in a bump). It can be further differentiated from other congeners except of Pareiorhaphis proskynita by its caudal peduncle depth 6.7-7.8% SL (vs. 7.8-14.0% SL). It differs from other congeners except P. bahianus, P. cerosus, P. eurycephalus, P. nudulus, P. parmula, P. steindachneri, and P. vestigipinnis by having 20-38 dentary teeth (vs. 42-120). The usual absence of the first dorsal-fin spinelet (vs. absence) separates this species from P. bahianus, P. cerosus, P. eurycephalus, P. parmula, and P. steindachneri. It further differs from P. nudulus and P. vestigipinnis by the presence of an adipose fin (vs. adipose fin absent) and having caudal peduncle width 4.1-5.3 % SL (vs. 5.5-8.7% SL) (Ref. 95497).

Description: Anal fin i,5; Pelvic-fin i,5; dorsal-fin spine moderately flexible, followed by seven branched rays; dorsal-fin locking mechanism not functional (Ref. 95497).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Pareiorhaphis lophia

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb
total 28 - 28


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total 1 - 1
Soft-rays total 7 - 7
Adipose fin present

Caudal fin

Attributes forked

Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total 6 - 6

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Spines     1
Soft-rays   6 - 6
Pelvics Attributes  
Position    abdominal
Soft-rays   6 - 6
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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