Morphology Data of Neobola kinondo
Identification keys
Main Ref. Bart, H.L., Jr., R.C. Schmidt, W.D. Nyingi and J. Gathua, 2019
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral fusiform / normal
Cross section compressed
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth terminal
Type of scales

Diagnosis: Neobola kinondo is readily diagnosed from its presumed closest relative, N. fluviatilis, by higher counts of lateral line scales, 38-47 vs. 37-41; predorsal scales, 20-27 vs. 19-20; and caudal peduncle circumferential scales, 12-16 vs. 10-13; and lower counts of transverse scales, 7-11 vs. 8-10; principal dorsal-fin rays, 7-9 vs. 8-9; and principal anal-fin rays, 18-23 vs. 20-24 (Ref. 121710). Combining lateral line scales and pre-dorsal scales completely separates Neobola kinondo from N. fluviatilis; Neobola kinondo has a combined count of 61 or more scales and N. fluviatilis has fewer than 61 lateral line and predorsal scales (Ref. 121710). Neobola kinondo differs from N. bottegi by its higher numbers of lateral line scales, 38-45 vs. 37-40; and principal anal-fin rays, 18-23 vs. 14-18; and a more triangular pectoral axial scale vs. more lanceolate in N. bottegi (Ref. 121710). Neobola kinondo differs from Engraulicypris moeruensis by its higher numbers of principal anal-fin rays, 18-23 vs. 14, and higher caudal peduncle circumferential scales (Ref. 121710). Neobola kinondo differs from N. nilotica by its lower modal numbers of lateral line scales and principal anal fin rays, 41 and 18 vs. 44 and 22 (Ref. 121710). Neobola kinondo is readily distinguished from N. stellae by its lower count of gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial, 7 vs. 10 (Ref. 121710).

Description: Body compressed, depth at dorsal fin averaging 20.9% of standard length, twice as deep as body width at dorsal fin, which averages 10.3% of standard length (Ref. 121710). Head long, averaging 22% of standard length; orbit diameter is large averaging 28% of head length, slightly smaller than interorbital width, which averages 31% of head length; snout short, smaller on average than eye diameter and averaging 26% of head length; mouth large, upturned and terminal, lips equal, extending roughly to anterior third of orbit (Ref. 121710). Pre-dorsal and pre-anal distances long and roughly equal, averaging 63.9% and 62.4% of standard length, respectively; suborbitals broad, covering most of cheek (Ref. 121710). Gill rakers short, seven on the ceratohyal of the anterior most gill arch; pharyngeal teeth in two rows, 4.3, dagger like with hooked tips (Ref. 121710). Dorsal fin short, averaging 10% of standard length, its origin slightly behind anal fin origin, modally with 8 principal rays, fin ray formula ii,7; anal fin long, averaging 23.6% of standard length, modally with 18 principal rays, fin ray formula iii,17; pectoral fin long, averaging 23.4% of standard length, slightly longer than head length and pointed, reaching origin of pelvic fin, modally with 12 principal rays; pelvic fin length 12.3% of standard length, roughly half as long as pectoral fin, modally with 8 principal rays; caudal fin modally with 19 principal rays, 9 in the upper lobe and 10 in the lower lobe (Ref. 121710). Scales thin and highly flexible (Ref. 121710). Caudal peduncle short and narrow, its length averaging 14.2% of standard length and depth averaging 8.9% of standard length (Ref. 121710). Pectoral axial scale small averages 31% of pectoral fin length, with a scalene triangular shape and a fleshy ventral border (Ref. 121710).

Colouration: In life, dorsum light brown, with intense silver to white on cheeks, operculum and sides from second scale row on dorsum to ventral body margin; dorsal and pectoral fins unpigmented; pelvic, anal and lower lobe of caudal fin yellow-orange (Ref. 121710). In preservative, the dorsum ground colour is brown lightening to taupe on the upper sides, with a dusting of brown melanophores and myomeres clearly visible through the skin; a distinct lateral stripe, narrow anteriorly and broadening posteriorly, separates the dorsum from the portion of the sides that is intensely silver in life; the silver colour on the cheeks, operculum and sides fades to white in preservative; the fins of preserved specimens are colourless and translucent; the colourless fins and intense silver to white colour on the sides are characters shared by Neobola fluviatilis (Ref. 121710).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Neobola kinondo

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line 38 - 47
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb 7 - 7
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Attributes no striking attributes
Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total 0 - 0
Soft-rays total 7 - 9
Adipose fin absent

Caudal fin

Attributes forked; more or less normal

Anal fin(s)

Fins number 1
Spines total 0 - 0
Soft-rays total 18 - 23

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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