Morphology Data of Limnothrissa miodon
Identification keys
Main Ref. Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985
Appearance refers to Male; Female
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs no special organs
Different appearance males alike females
Different colors males alike females

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features none
Body shape lateral fusiform / normal
Cross section oval
Dorsal head profile more or less straight
Type of eyes more or less normal
Type of mouth/snout more or less normal
Position of mouth terminal
Type of scales cycloid scales

Diagnosis: Body fairly slender, depth about 22-24% of standard length; pre-pelvic scutes not strongly keeled, beginning behind base of last pectoral fin ray; maxilla blade over 4 times as long as its shaft, its lower toothed edge continued forward to meet hind tip of pre-maxilla; second supra-maxilla asymmetrical, lower half larger; lower gillrakers long and slender, 35-40; a distinct silver stripe along flank (Ref. 188, 1878). Its synonym Limnothrissa stappersii is characterised by fewer lower gill rakers, 22-25, fewer anal fin rays, 15-17, and the absence of scutes, and represents possibly a juvenile form of L. miodon (Ref. 188, 26733). It resembles Stolothrissa tanganicae of Lake Tanganyika, which is more slender, has a small eye and a shorter maxilla blade not reaching forward to hind tip of premaxilla (Ref. 188).

Description: Body torpedo-shaped with short fins, pectorals low on body, pelvics behind dorsal origin, anal long-based, caudal forked (Ref. 7248, 52193). Mouth terminal; lower jaw projecting, lower front teeth large, sharply pointed and curved backward; upper jaw without median notch (Ref. 188, 7248, 52193). Gillrakers long and slender, closely set, 35-40 on lower part of anterior arch; number of lower gill rakers 20-25 for Limnothrissa stappersii, which is possibly a juvenile form of L. miodon (Ref. 188, 1878, 26733). Dorsal fin with 13-18 rays, equally distant from centre or posterior border of eye and from root of caudal, longest rays about half length of head; anal fin with 15-19 rays, a long way behind the dorsal, nearer to root of caudal fin than to base of pelvic fins; pectoral fin 3/5 length of head, widely separated from pelvic fin; pelvic fin inserted below anterior third or middle of dorsal, with 1 unbranched and 7 branched rays; caudal fin deeply forked, with pointed lobes (Ref. 188, 1878, 26733, 52193, 93833). Scales small and thin, easily shed; 45-48 scales in longitudinal series; 14 transverse scales (Ref. 1878, 52193). With 11-15 prepelvic and 6-11 postpelvic scutes, with pre-pelvic scutes not strongly keeled and beginning behind base of last pectoral fin ray (Ref. 188, 7248, 26733, 52193). Total number of vertebrae 41-44 (Ref. 26733).

Colouration: Olive above; silvery below, with a blue indistinct lateral band; dorsal and caudal greyish, other fins white (Ref. 1872, 1878).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Limnothrissa miodon

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series 45 - 48
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Barbels 0
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb 20 - 40
on upper limb
total 41 - 44


Dorsal fin(s)

Attributes no striking attributes
Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total 0 - 0
Soft-rays total 13 - 18
Adipose fin absent

Caudal fin

Attributes forked; more or less normal

Anal fin(s)

Fins number 1
Spines total 0 - 0
Soft-rays total 15 - 19

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  more or less normal
Pelvics Attributes  more or less normal
Position    abdominal  beneath origin of D1
Spines     0
Soft-rays   8 - 8
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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