Morphology Data of Laubuka parafasciata
Identification keys
Main Ref. Lalramliana, D. Vanlalhlimpuia and M. Singh, 2017
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral fusiform / normal
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

Laubuka parafasciata can be diagnosed from all members of the genus in having 16 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 14) and having the premaxillae not in contact (vs. in contact) at the symphysis. It can be further distinguished, except L. fasciata, in having a broad, dark-brown midlateral stripe from the posterior rim of the orbit to the middle of the caudal-fin base. It differs from L. fasciata in having a short pelvic fin, not reaching the origin of anal fin (vs. pelvic fin elongated, reaching beyond origin of anal fin), 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. 7½), 2½ scales (vs. 1½) between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and 16½-19½ branched anal-fin rays (vs. 14½-15½). It can be further differentiated from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: premaxillae not in contact at symphysis; 16 precaudal vertebrae; minute tubercles scattered on the lower jaw; 28-33 scales on lateral line; 16-18 predorsal scales; dorsal fin with 8½ branched rays; anal fin with16½-19½ branched rays; and 2½ scales between lateral line and origin of pelvic fin (Ref. 117337).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Laubuka parafasciata

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line 28 - 32
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle 12 - 12
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb
preanal 16 - 16
total 34 - 34


Dorsal fin(s)

Attributes no striking attributes
Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total 10 - 10
Adipose fin absent

Caudal fin

Attributes forked

Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total 19 - 22

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  more or less normal
Soft-rays   10 - 13
Pelvics Attributes  more or less normal
Position    abdominal  before origin of D1
Soft-rays   6 - 7
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
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