Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837)
Milk shark
Pating,  Kitil-kitil
Rhizoprionodon acutus
photo by Cambraia Duarte, P.M.N. (c)ImagDOP

Family:  Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Max. size:  175 cm TL (male/unsexed); 80.8 cm TL (female); max.weight: 5,000.0 g; max. reported age: 8 years
Environment:  benthopelagic; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 200 m, amphidromous
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: Madeira and Mauritania to Angola (Ref. 244). Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia, north to Japan, south to Australia. Also reported from Gulf of Taranto in Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 231).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0-0; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 0-0. A small shark with a long, narrow, snout, big eyes without notches, long labial furrows, and oblique-cusped teeth which may be smooth-edged or weakly serrated; 2nd dorsal fin small, low and behind larger anal fin; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Grey or grey-brown above, white below (Ref. 5578). Dorsal and anal fins with dusky or blackish edges, fins slightly darker than back (Ref. 9997).
Biology:  Found on continental shelves, often on sandy beaches and rarely in estuaries (Ref. 244). Reported to enter freshwater and recorded several times from Cambodia as far upstream as the Great Lake (Ref. 12693). Occurs near the surface in shallow waters (Ref. 12693). Feeds mainly on small pelagic and benthic bony fishes, also cephalopods and other invertebrates (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized fresh and possibly dried salted for human consumption and for fishmeal (Ref. 9997). The 178 cm specimen recorded off Africa is possibly based on some other species (Ref. 9997).
IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU); Date assessed: 04 February 2020 (A2bd) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Recorded from specimens taken from Sitankai I., Mindanao; Cadiz, Negros Occidental; Capiz and Iloilo, Panay; Cavite and Tayabas, Luzon; Puerto Princesa, Palawan (Ref. 47737). Also Ref. 244, 6871, 9997, 26842, 12744, 47930, 47939, 110893. Occurrence: Cavite and Tayabas, Luzon; Puerto Princesa, Palawan; Cadiz, Negros Occidental; Capiz and Iloilo, Panay I., western Visayas; Sitankai I., Mindanao.

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