Rhinoptera javanica Müller & Henle, 1841
Flapnose ray
Paging dalimanok,  Banugan,  Ogaog,  Paging bungi,  Paging palimanok,  Palimanok,  Pasa-pasa
Rhinoptera javanica
photo by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO)

Family:  Rhinopteridae (Cownose rays)
Max. size:  165 cm WD (male/unsexed); max.weight: 4,500.0 g
Environment:  reef-associated; brackish; marine
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: Oman to the Philippines; north to Ryukyu Is.; south to eastern Indonesia.
Diagnosis:  Double-lobed snout and indented forehead; jaws usually with 7 rows of plate-like teeth; no caudal fin (Ref. 5578). Brown above, white below (Ref. 5578).
Biology:  Found in bays, estuaries, and near coral reefs (Ref. 12951), over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9710). Usually solitary or in small aggregations (Ref. 114953). However, large schools with up to 500 individuals have been reported (Ref. 12951). Feeds on clams, oysters and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Lives to over 2 years in captivity (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Edible (Ref. 30573). Caught mainly by gill net fisheries (Ref. 114953), occasionally by bottom trawl, demersal inshore gillnet and tangle net fisheries. Utilized for its meat (Ref. 58048).
IUCN Red List Status: Endangered (EN); Date assessed: 27 May 2020 (A2cd) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Collected from Bolinao and Puerto Princesa markets (Ref. 47737). Also Ref. 280. In range Ref. 3965.

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