Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacep├Ęde, 1802)
Whitesaddle goatfish
Parupeneus ciliatus
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Max. size:  38 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 2,265.0 g
Environment:  reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 91 m
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: western Indian Ocean to the Line, Marquesan, and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia and Rapa. Replaced by Parupeneus porphyreus in the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 37816).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 8-8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-9; Anal spines: 1-1; Anal soft rays: 7-7. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 15 (rarely 14 or 16); gill rakers 6-8 + 23-27 (total 30-34); body depth 2.93.5 in SL; head length (HL) 2.85-3.25 in SL; dorsal profile of snout straight to slightly concave, the snout length 1.85-2.1 in HL; barbels short, 1.5-1.8 in HL; longest dorsal spine 1.55-1.9 in HL; last dorsal ray slightly longer than penultimate ray; posterior margin of caudal-fin lobes convex; pectoral-fin length 1.35-1.55 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.2-1.55 in HL. Color brown to red dorsally, paler ventrally, the scale edges darker; scales on body with or without a white or pale blue spot; a darker brown or brownish red stripe, broadly bordered in white, from front of snout through center of eye, becoming indistinct below origin of second dorsal fin; a dark brown spot within stripe behind eye; a second dark stripe across cheek parallel to the first, bordered below by a white band that ends at pectoral-fin base; a white or pale pink spot anteriorly on upper half of caudal peduncle covering about three horizontal rows of scales, followed by a black or dusky spot with darker scale edges a little larger in size (spot may extend slightly below lateral line); fins light red to reddish gray, the second dorsal and anal fins often with small pale spots (Ref. 54393).
Biology:  Occurs in seagrass beds and coralline areas of lagoon and seaward reefs. Feeds on benthic invertebrates, mostly crustaceans, at night.
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 11 March 2015 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Also Ref. 1602, 54393.

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