Kuhlia rupestris (Lacep├Ęde, 1802)
Rock flagtail
Damagan,  Rockmountain bass,  Damagan,  Gamagan Kalabingat
Kuhlia rupestris
photo by Ryan, P.

Family:  Kuhliidae (Aholeholes)
Max. size:  45 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 2,700.0 g
Environment:  reef-associated; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 5 m, catadromous
Distribution:  Africa to Asia and Oceania: East Africa to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland, Australia and New Caledonia.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-12; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 9-11. Diagnosis: Preorbital serrae 10-15 (obsolete in large specimens); body depth 2.6-3.0 in SL; mouth large for genus, maxilla reaching to below posterior half of eye; caudal fin emarginate, lobes somewhat rounded, caudal concavity 5.3-8.7 in head length (Ref. 41640). Reduced number of lateral line scales; 17-18(19) gillrakers on lower part of first bracnhial arch; body with spots (Ref. 79840). Coloration: Silvery, the scales dorsally on body with black edges, those on side with a black bar or spot; juveniles with a broad black zone, edged above and below in white, in soft portion of dorsal fin, and each lobe of caudal fin with a large, white-edged black spot; black areas in these fins enlarge with growth until in adults most of these fins black (caudal with upper and lower edges and corners whitish) (Ref. 41640).
Biology:  Primarily a freshwater inhabitant but may penetrate adjacent marine habitats (Ref. 41640). Adults occur in estuaries and the middle reaches of rivers; usually in relatively fast-flowing, clear streams (Ref. 2847, 79840). Usually in rainforests, as well as in rocky pools below waterfalls (Ref. 44894). Adults are omnivorous, feeding on small fishes, insects, crustaceans and fruits (figs) that drop into the water. Specific breeding habits are unknown, but adults move downstream into estuaries or to the sea to spawn (Ref. 44894). Neither anterolateral groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Good food fish (Ref. 5329).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 14 February 2019 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Recorded from the Malatgaw River, Palawan (Ref. 41640). Specimens in VisCA museum collected from Kawasan waterfall in Cebu (Ref. 7223). Reported from Lake Taal (Ref. 80679, 13446) and Lake Naujan (Ref. 13446).

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