Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849)
Anturayan,  Barilis,  Burawon,  Kawakawa,  Tulingan,  Tulingan puti,  Aloy,  Bangkolisan,  Bansikol,  Bantala-an,  Barilis,  Boga-ongon,  Buga-ongon,  Bugaongon,  Bulis,  Hasa-hasa,  Katsarita,  Katsorita,  Katsot,  Mackerel tuna,  Mangko,  Manko,  Minanga,  Oceanic bonito,  Pagadparon,  Panit,  Pidlayan,  Pirit,  Purupondahan,  Reado,  Sobad,  Subad,  Talingay,  Tambacol,  Tangi,  Timbongan,  Tulingan,  Tulingan puti,  Tulingang puti,  Turingan,  Using,  Yaito bonito,  Bagoong tulingan
Euthynnus affinis
photo by Field, R.

Family:  Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos), subfamily: Scombrinae
Max. size:  100 cm FL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 14 kg; max. reported age: 6 years
Environment:  pelagic-neritic; marine; depth range 0 - 200 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: in warm waters including oceanic islands and archipelagos. A few stray specimens have been collected in the Eastern Central Pacific. Highly migratory.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 10-15; Dorsal soft rays (total): 11-15; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 11-15; Vertebrae: 39-39. This species is distinguished by the following characters: medium-sized fish with a robust, elongate and fusiform body; teeth small and conical, in a single series; total gill rakers on first gill arch 29-34; D1 XI-XIV with both dorsal fins separated by only a narrow interspace (not wider than eye), anterior spines of first fin much higher than those midway, giving fin a strongly concave outline; D2 much lower than first and followed by 8-10 finlets; anal fin followed by 6-8 finlets; pectoral fins short, never reaching interspace between dorsal fins; 2 flaps (interpelvic process) between pelvic fins; very slender caudal peduncle with a prominent lateral keel between 2 small keels at base of caudal fin; body naked except for corselet and lateral line. Colour of back dark blue with a complicated striped pattern which does not extend forward beyond middle of first dorsal fin; lower sides and belly silvery white; several characteristic dark spots between pelvic and pectoral fins (but may not always be present) (Ref. 9684, 90102).

Description: Swim bladder absent; no trace of vertebral protuberances; dorsal rays X-XV+11-15+8-10 finlets; anal rays 11-15+6-8 finlets; pectoral rays 25-29; maxilla extending posterior to middle of eye; jaw teeth are small and conical, about 25-35 on each side of lower jaw; presence of palatine teeth, none on vomer (Ref. 90102).

Biology:  Occurs in open waters but always remains close to the shoreline. The young may enter bays and harbors. Forms multi-species schools by size with other scombrid species comprising from 100 to over 5,000 individuals. A highly opportunistic predator feeding indiscriminately on small fishes, especially on clupeoids and atherinids; also on squids, crustaceans and zooplankton. Caught in multispecies fisheries, mainly by surface trolling; also with gill nets. Generally marketed canned and frozen; also utilized dried, salted, smoked and fresh (Ref. 9684).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 04 December 2009 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  reports of ciguatera poisoning
Country info:  Known from Hali-An Island, Mindanao (Ref. 58652) and Lanuza Bay (Ref. 104756). Also Ref. 168, 393, 9987.

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