Epinephelus bruneus Bloch, 1793
Longtooth grouper
Epinephelus bruneus
photo by Yiu Wai Hong@114°E Hong Kong Reef Fish Survey

Family:  Epinephelidae (Groupers)
Max. size:  136 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 33 kg
Environment:  reef-associated; marine; depth range 20 - 200 m
Distribution:  Northwest Pacific: Korea, Japan (north to Hegura-jima Island), China (south to Hong Kong and Hainan Island), and Taiwan.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dark greyish brown; body covered with small pale grey spots forming short horizontal lines and mottled pattern; lower margin of the anal fin and lower corner of the caudal fin with white edge; juveniles pale yellowish brown, body with 6 irregular oblique dark bars containing irregular pale spots; elongate body, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, serrae at angle distinctly enlarged; inconspicuous dorsal spine on opercle; convex upper edge of operculum; small and subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye, tiny embedded scales on maxilla; absence of step on ventral edge of maxilla; 2 rows of well-developed canines on midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin rounded; mid-lateral body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales on body (Ref. 089707).
Biology:  Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds (Ref. 089707). Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.
IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable (VU); Date assessed: 20 November 2016 (A2bd) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

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