Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825
Bigeye trevally
Bigeye trevally,  Sibo,  Adlo,  Ariwan,  Atulay,  Babadlong,  Babakulan,  Badlon,  Bagudlong,  Bakulaw,  Banded cavalla,  Bansikol,  Barilason,  Baulo,  Brunsi,  Bulubukto,  Dulasan,  Ingatan,  Istah putih,  Kalapato,  Karis-karis,  Lambiyan,  Langog,  Langug,  Lison,  Malapondo,  Malilmango,  Maliputo,  Mamsa,  Manitis,  Mansa,  Momsa,  Muslo,  Nagboboguel,  Orange-spotted trevally,  Pagapa,  Pampano,  Pikat,  Pinkit,  Pulang buntot,  Salay-salay,  Saraming,  Simbad,  Tagiptipon,  Talabkito,  Talakitok,  Tamarong,  Tarakito,  Tarakitok,  Trakito,  Trukitok,  Tungap,  Ulingan,  Vated,  Vulong
Caranx sexfasciatus
photo by Patzner, R.

Family:  Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos), subfamily: Caranginae
Max. size:  120 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 18 kg
Environment:  reef-associated; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 146 m, amphidromous
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Hawaii, north to southern Japan and the Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Eastern Pacific: southwestern coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico and the Gulf of California to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 9-9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19-22; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 14-17; Vertebrae: 25-25. This species is distinguished by the following characters: dorsal profile moderately convex anteriorly; adipose eyelid well developed, moderate anteriorly, posterior eyelid extends onto eye to rear border of pupil; gill rakers (including rudiments) 6-8 + 15-19 = 21-25; straight part of lateral line with 0-3 anterior scales followed by 27-36 strong, dark scutes; breast completely scaly; vertebrae 10+15; upper jaw with outer row of strong canines widely spaced in adults, and an inner band of small villiform teeth, widest at symphysis; on lower limb of first gill arch jaw with a single row of strong conical teeth widely spaced in adults. Colour in life with adults' head and body silvery olive to iridescent blue-green above, silvery olive to whitish below; small blackish spot, much smaller than pupil diameter, at upper angle of opercle (this spot evident on specimens of about 14 cm fork length); second dorsal fin olive to blackish, the lobe with a white tip (white tip becomes more obvious with increasing size) (Ref. 9894).

Description: Anal and caudal fins yellowish to black; body oblong and compressed; ventral profile slightly convex; pectoral fins falcate; anal fin with 2 detached spines (Ref. 2334, 90102).

Biology:  Adults inhabit coastal and oceanic waters associated with reefs (Ref. 9283, 58302). Pelagic at 1-96 m (Ref. 58302). They are often seen in large daytime schools but solitary at night when feeding (Ref. 90102). During the day they are usually seen milling in stationary aggregations (Ref. 44894), forming slow-moving schools in the passes or outside the reef (Ref. 4795). Juveniles may be encountered in estuaries (Ref. 9283, 44894), occasionally entering rivers and penetrating well inland (Ref. 2847, 44894). Adults feed mainly on fishes, squids and crustaceans (Ref. 9283, Ref. 90102). They are caught mainly on hook-and-line; also with gill nets, purse seines, and other artisanal gear (Ref. 9894). Marketed fresh, dried or salted (Ref. 9283) and frozen (Ref. 9987). Consumed broiled and baked (Ref. 9987).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 13 December 2018 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Known from Sorsogon City (Ref. 58652). Also Ref. 3280, 9987, 12744. Unconfirmed report from Taal Lake (Ref. 80679). Reported from Taal Lake, in Talisay area as part of gill net catch composition (Ref. 81207, 13446) and TaƱon Strait (Ref. 107276). Also Ref. 121724.

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.