Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
Giant mottled eel
Giant mottled eel,  Igat,  Almang,  Anguilla,  Casili,  Casili (Borirawan),  Eel,  Endong,  Indong honasan,  Kasili,  Palos,  Pangitan,  Pubukangbinhi,  Talunasan
Anguilla marmorata
photo by Warren, T.

Family:  Anguillidae (Freshwater eels)
Max. size:  70 cm TL (male/unsexed); 200 cm TL (female); max.weight: 21 kg; max.weight: 15 kg; max. reported age: 40 years
Environment:  demersal; freshwater; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 400 m, catadromous
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: East Africa, inland Mozambique and lower Zambezi River to French Polynesia, north to southern Japan.
Diagnosis:  Vertebrae: 100-110. Adults have a brownish to black marbling on their back on a greyish yellow background. This coloration can fade away. White belly. Younger specimens are greyish to orange and the marbling is less visible (Ref. 48622). Body color brown speckles scattered on back, sides and fins; yellow between speckles and edge of pectoral fin; belly white or pale blue (Ref. 45563). Head rounded; snout depressed; lower jaw protruded; gill openings small; scales matted-like under skin; pectoral fin rounded; pelvic fin absent (Ref. 45563). Distinguished from all other species by the mottled color and the long dorsal fin, which begins closer to the gill opening than to the anus (Ref. 9828).
Biology:  Live in freshwater areas as adults, estuaries and seas as young (Ref. 12693). Found in lowland rivers as well as upland tributaries (Ref. 2847). While in river, the sex gland does not develop. But in winter when they move from the stream to river mouth, the sex gland begins to develop as mature individuals go to deep sea to breed (Ref. 45563). The spawning grounds are deep sea gullies among the south of the Philippines, east of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (Ref. 45563). Are active at night, feeding on a wide range of prey (Ref. 7248, 79840), especially crabs, frogs and fish (Ref. 7248). Thought to breed east of Madagascar where the young are wafted to the East Coast by ocean currents (Ref. 13337, 79840).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 06 November 2018 Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Found to be rare in Lake Bombon (=Taal), except maybe at great depths (Ref. 12165, 13446). Migrated into Lake Mainit via Tubay River, Mindanao (Ref. 4867, 50320). Known from PinacaƱauan River, Cagayan Prov.; Ilocos Sur; Bontoc, Mt. Prov.; mountains of Zambales near Iba; Laguna de Bay; Bicol River; Cabalian in Leyte; Pulangi, Mindanao; Sibuyan; Masbate; Polillo; Jolo Is.; Mindoro; Tarlac; Zamboanga; Manila (Ref. 280), and Lake Naujan (Ref. 13446); Lake Lanao (Ref. 13446); and Basey River, Samar (Ref. 7223). In northern Luzon, occur in mountain streams at an altitude or more than 1,530 meters (Ref. 12748). Referred to as A. mauritiana by some authors. Also Ref. 7223, 45114, 94476.

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