Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790)
Whitespotted eagle ray
Aetobatus narinari
photo by Vaske Jr., T.

Family:  Aetobatidae (Pacific eagle rays)
Max. size:  230 cm WD (male/unsexed); max.weight: 230 kg
Environment:  benthopelagic; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 80 m, amphidromous
Distribution:  Western Atlantic and probably Eastern Atlantic. Indo-Pacific species refer to Aetobatus ocellatus; Eastern Pacific species refers to A. laticeps.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0-0; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 0-0. An eagleray with a long snout, flat and rounded like a duck's bill, a thick head, and a pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners, and no caudal fin; jaws usually with single row of flat, chevron-shaped teeth (Ref. 5578). Each tooth a crescent-shaped plate joined into a band (Ref. 26938). Numerous white spots on black or bluish disc; white below (Ref. 5578). Long whiplike tail, with a long spine near the base, behind small dorsal fin. No spines on disk (Ref. 7251).
Biology:  Commonly found in coastal habitats to at least 60 m depth (Ref. 114953). Swims close to the surface, occasionally leaping out of the water, or close to the bottom (Ref. 3175). Frequently forming large schools during the non-breeding season (Ref. 7251). Feeds on polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, cepahlopods, shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Bears young in litters of 2-4 (Ref. 26938, 114953).
IUCN Red List Status: Endangered (EN); Date assessed: 28 July 2020 (A2bd) Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  traumatogenic

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.