Reported as native in the Umgeni River (Ref. 615). Introduced for angling and sport in the Okavango river system in Botswana. Also introduced for the control of aquatic vegetation (Ref. 4537). Reintroduced in 1974. May have competed with O mossambicus due to similarities in feeding and habitat preferences. May also interbreed with O. mossambicus. Introduced by the Botswana government from the Okavango River (country unknown) to the Shashi Dam in Botswana in 1973, probably for angling purposes (Ref. 21). Introduction in the region of the confluence of the Orange and Vaal Rivers (South Africa) resulted in the fish dying out probably due to low winter temperatures; a date or area of origin for this last introduction is not given (Ref. 21).