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Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich, 1825)

Bobo croaker
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pseudotolithus elongatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pseudotolithus elongatus
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Cameroon country information

Common names: [No common name]
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: minor commercial | Ref: FAO, 1994
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Found in Sanaga and coastal rivers of west and south Cameroon (Ref. 51193).
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 3593), usually 50 - 100 m (Ref. 26999).   Tropical; 17°N - 6°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54743)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: west coast of Africa, from Senegal to at least southern Angola (Ref. 3593, 57396, 81656).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 19.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 62.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 52841); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 29-35; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 6 - 7. Diagnosis: medium-sized fish, fusiform/elongate and laterally compressed (Ref. 57396, 81656). Head and snout short (Ref. 57396). Eyes rather large (Ref. 57396, 81656), 3.6-4.6 times in HL, but this character is difficult to use for identification because of allometry (Ref. 81656). Mouth large and oblique (Ref. 57396, 81656), subterminal (Ref. 57396). Maxilla extending beyond posterior eye border (Ref. 81656). Teeth villiform, set in narrow bands in both jaws; 5 marginal pores on snout and 6 mental pores (Ref. 57396). Gill rakers long (Ref. 57396, 81656) and slender (Ref. 57396), longer than gill filaments at angle of first gill arch (Ref. 57396, 81656), 11-16/1/5-8 (total 19-25) on 1st gill arch (Ref. 81656). Lower part of 1st gill arch with 0-5 reduced additional gill rakers, upper part with 0-3 reduced additional ones; preopercular edge denticulate, with a few strong spines in the corner (Ref. 81656). Dorsal fin long, deeply notched (Ref. 57396), with 10 spines in 1st part and 1 spine and 29-35 soft rays in 2nd part (Ref. 81656). 2nd anal fin spine very strong, about as long as 1st soft ray (Ref. 57396, 81656) and comprised less than twice in head length (Ref. 57396). Pectoral fins long, 23.6-29.6% SL (Ref. 81656). Caudal fin more or less pointed (Ref. 57396, 81656) or rhomboidal (Ref. 81656). Scales ctenoid on body, cycloid on breast and head; lateral line extending to hind margin of caudal fin; swim bladder carrot-shaped, its front end with a pair of appendages subdividing into a group of short anterior branches and a bundle of 5-6 slender tubes extending backwards over half the length of swim bladder (Ref. 57396). Coloration: general colour silver-grey with a reddish sheen (Ref. 81656), back olivaceous brown (Ref. 57396) with series of dark dots, belly light, yellowish during reproduction period (Ref. 57396, 81656). Dorsal and caudal fins greyish (Ref. 81656). Spinous part of dorsal fin dark, soft part lighter, with 2-3 longitudinal series of dark dots; pelvics and anal fin yellowish (Ref. 57396, 81656).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters over mud bottom (Ref. 3593, 57396, 81656), very close to the shore (Ref. 57396). Also enters estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 3593, 81656), where reproduction takes place (Ref. 57396). Moves farther offshore to about 100 m for spawning during rainy season from December to February; feeds on (juvenile) fish, shrimps (Ref. 28587, 81656) and other crustaceans (Ref. 81656).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 10 March 2020

CITES (Ref. 128078)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 16.3 - 20.9, mean 19.2 (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00376 - 0.01110), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.70 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.27-0.4;).
Prior r = 0.52, 95% CL = 0.34 - 0.78, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.