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Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål, 1775)

King soldierbream
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
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Argyrops spinifer   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Argyrops spinifer (King soldierbream)
Argyrops spinifer
Picture by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO)

Philippines country information

Common names: [No common name]
Occurrence: misidentification
Salinity: marine
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Most probably referring to Argyrops bleekeri following distribution in Ref. 124569.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Iwatsuki, Y. and P.C. Heemstra, 2018
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Argyrops: Greek, argyros = silver, silvered + Gree, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335).
  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 450 m (Ref. 100719), usually 5 - 100 m (Ref. 30573).   Tropical; 34°N - 28°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, to Singapore and southernmost end of the Malay Peninsula.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124569); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 7 - 8; Vertebrae: 24. This species is distinguished from all its congeners by the following set of characters: body deep and becoming compressed and less deep with growth; D XII,10, the first 2 dorsal-fin spines rudimentary (2 dorsal-fin spines on first dorsal pterygiophore); the dorsal-fin with two morpho types of configuration (Type I 'rigid type', fragile] as a rigid tapering spine and Type II ['flexible type', comparatively robust] as a flexible tapering spine in Group A - Red Sea, Group B - Gulf of Aden and eastern coast of Africa, and Group C - Persian Gulf, only Type II, is seen in both Group D - Madagascar to Sri Lanka and Group E - Eastern Indian Ocean, each Group is allopatric and is likely to have similar genetic structure (not analyzed in Group D or E). Colouration: body uniform pink with belly and lower jaw silvery, head red; spinous dorsal fin pink or red, other fins pink or pale pink; with pink tinge around eye; upper jaw often pinkish; anterior and posterior margins of the upper cheek scales nearly parallel just below rear edge of eye; orbit diameter is clearly less than suborbital depth (Ref. 124569).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in a wide range of bottoms. Young fish occur in very shallow waters of sheltered bays; larger individuals in deeper water. Feed on benthic invertebrates, mainly mollusks (Ref. 5213). Important food fish.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Iwatsuki, Y. and P.C. Heemstra, 2018. Taxonomic review of the genus Argyrops (Perciformes; Sparidae) with three new species from the Indo-West Pacific. Zootaxa 4438(3):401-442. (Ref. 124569)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 02 December 2009

CITES (Ref. 128078)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.4 - 29, mean 27.9 (based on 3786 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01939 - 0.02706), b=2.96 (2.91 - 3.01), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.21; tmax=25; tm=2; Fec = 47,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High vulnerability (61 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.