Biodiversity Rwanda (RWA)
  FishBase Complete Literature Reference
Species Families Species Families
Marine No
Freshwater 82 15 No Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1984
Total 82 15 No
Ref.   Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1984
Conservation The following information is to be sought: - Status of knowledge of the freshwater fauna; - Existence of conservation plans; - Information on major aquatic habitats or sites within the country; - Current major threats to species; - Future potential threats to species; - Contact(s) for further information.
Geography and Climate Rwanda has a surface area of 24,950 km2 and consists mainly of grassy uplands which form part of the watershed between the Zaire and Nile River systems. It slopes from a range of high volcanoes in the northwest to savanna plains in the east. To the west the hills descend abruptly into Lake Kivu. The high elevation makes for temperate climate and frost may even occur in the high mountains. There is a short dry season in January with the major rainy season occurring from February to May. The main dry season lasts from May to September and the short rains from September to December. The rainfall is far heavier on the mountainous areas to the north and northwest than on the eastern savannas. The population of Rwanda is entirely rural with small holdings dispersed throughout most of the country. Cattle herding is also very important although limited to the highlands because of heavy Tsetse infestations in the plains. There is one extensive national park along the lower portion of the Kagera River which contains many of the morre important lowland lakes.

Ref.  Vanden Bossche, J.-P. and G.M. Bernacsek, 1990
Hydrography Lakes: Rwandan lakes fall into four main groups and into two main river basins: (a) Lake Kivu, Zaire River Basin - very deep and rich in nutrients; (b) High altitude lakes in the north (i.e., Lakes Luhondo and Bulera, the latter being associated with the Rugezi Swamps), Nile River Basin. These two lakes are cold, deep and rather infertile; (c) Upper Akagera (also called Kagera) Lakes Complex (i.e., Lakes Birira, Cyohoha South, Gaharwa, Gashanga, Kidogo, Kirimbi, Mirayi, Mugesera, Muhazi, Murago, Rugwero, Sake), Nile River Basin. Mean altitude: 1,360 m (except Muhazi: 1,450 m). These lakes are warm, shallow and fertile. They are interspaced among the flooded papyrus plain of the Akanyaru and the Nyabarongo Valleys. The combined surface area in Rwanda is 166.5 km2; (d) Lower Akagera Lakes Complex (i.e., Lakes Chuju, Hago, Ihema, Iwapibali (=Rwakibale), Kishanja, Kivumba, Mihindi, Nasho, Ngerenke, Muhari, Rwampanga, Rwanyakizinga, Rwehikama), Nile River Basin. Mean altitude: 1,200 m. These are warm, shallow and fertile. They are spread over the lateral floodplain of the Akagera River below the Rusumo Falls. The combined surface area is 178.4 km2. Rivers, floodplains and swamps: the country is dominated by the Akanyaru-Nyabarongo-Akagera River, which drains the majority of the country. The river is encased in narrow valleys for much of its upper course, but forms broad papyrus-filled swamps in its middle reaches. In its lower course, below the Rusumo Falls, it expands over large areas of savanna into a swamp mostly included in the Akagera National Park. The combined surface area of the Akagera swamps is about 1,000 km2 in Rwanda. A higher altitude swamps occurs in the north of the country: Rugezi Swamp, 80 km2, tributary of Lake Bulera. One other short but important river is the Ruzizi, which flows out of Lake Kivu toward Lake Tanganyika. Reservoirs: two reservoirs have been built, but are not used for fish production: Shyogwe reservoir near Gitarama (8.5 ha), drinking water reserve; and Nyabisundu reservoir near Bukare (7 ha), irrigation water reserve (Reizer, 1975) (Ref. 12098). Coastal lagoons: none; Rwanda is landlocked.

Ref.  Vanden Bossche, J.-P. and G.M. Bernacsek, 1990
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