Biodiversity Panama (PAN)
 
  FishBase Complete Literature Reference
Species Families Species Families
Marine 1238 173 No
Freshwater 194 47 No
Total 1417 202 No
Conservation The following information is to be sought: - Status of knowledge of the freshwater fauna; - Existence of conservation plans; - Information on major aquatic habitats or sites within the country; - Current major threats to species; - Future potential threats to species; - Contact(s) for further information.
Geography and Climate Panama is located in Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica. Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina. Total land boundary is 555 km, border countries are Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km. Climate is tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May). Terrain consists of interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills. Elevation extreme has the lowest point in Pacific Ocean 0 m and highest point in Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m. Natural resources are copper, mahogany forests, shrimp. Land use: arable land: 7%, permanent crops: 2%, permanent pastures: 20%, forests and woodland: 44%, other: 27% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.). Environment—current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation. Geography—note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean.

Ref.  Anonymous, 1999
Hydrography
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