Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Teleostei (teleosts) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Loricariidae
(Armored catfishes) > Hypostominae
Etymology: Spectracanthicus: Latin, spectrum = look, apparition + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335); zuanoni: Named for Jansen Zuanon (INPA) due to his contribution to the knowledge of Neotropical Ichthyology. Jansen Zuanon was also the first ichthyologist who collected and identified this species as a new one..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
South America: Rio Xingu basin in Pará State, Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 126097); max. published weight: 220.00 g (Ref. 126097)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 5;
Vertebrae: 26. This is distinguished from other species of Spectracanthicus by its color pattern consisting of large, white spots (vs. small yellowish dots in S. murinus, S. punctatissimus, and S. tocantinensis , and dark gray lacking dots in S. immaculatus). It also differs from congeners, except S. murinus, by having larger orbital diameter up to 29.2% of HL (vs. up to 25.7% in S. punctatissimus, 20.3% in S. tocantinensis, 16.2% in S. immaculatus). It can be further separated from S. murinus by having rounded dorsal view of the snout, bar-shaped, eversible opercle with conspicuous odontodes, and four unbranched anal-fin rays (vs. snout slightly pointed; opercle triangle-shaped, not eversible, lacking conspicuous odontodes; three anal-fin unbranched rays); from S. tocantinensis by having 19-43 dentary teeth (vs. 8-16) and by the infraorbital 4 forming just a small area of orbit (vs. forming posterior edge of orbit almost totally) (Ref. 95496).
Feeds actively at night on algae and other food items off periphyton by grazing over rock bottom. Found in rock-bottom areas subjected to backwater and strong currents. Occurs individually or in groups of three, under shelter boulders (adults) and spaces beneath rocks (juveniles), up to 2m deep. Juveniles co-inhabit with other loricariids such as Ancistrus sp., A. ranunculus, Baryancistrus xanthellus, Spectracanthicus punctatissimus , Hopliancistrus tricornis, Parancistrus nudiventris, Peckoltia vittata, and Pseudancistrus aff. barbatus (Ref. 95496).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chamon, C.C. and L.H. Rapp Py-Daniel, 2014. Taxonomic revision of Spectracanthicus Nijssen & Isbrücker (Loricariidae: Hypostominae: Ancistrini), with description of three new species. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(1):1-25. (Ref. 95496)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00505 - 0.01805), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100).